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Principles of Radiographic Exposure

Training Manual - Principles of Radiographic Exposure (98 Pages)

Lesson 1 - Principles of Radiographic Exposure I

Section I. Introduction
The X-Ray Beam
X-Ray Exposure Terms

Section II. The Silver Image
Image Characteristics
Radiographic Density
Radiographic Contrast
Short-Scale Versus Long-Scale Contrast
X-Ray Penetration
Factor of X-Ray Wavelength
Absorption By Body Parts
Absorption Variables
Radiographic Exposure
Value of Constants

Section III. The Effect of Source-to-Image Distance on Density
Source-to-Image Distance
Application of Inverse Square Law
Arithmetical Relation of mAs and SID

Section IV. Function of Kilovoltage
Greater Exposure Efficiency by Use of Higher Kilovoltage
Relation of kVp-mAs-SID-Density
Overexposure
Underexposure
Kilovoltage and Contrast
Contrast Without Fog
Kilovoltage and Exposure Latitude
Wide Exposure Latitude
Narrow Exposure Latitude

Section V. Factors Influencing Secondary Radiation Fog
Influence of Tissues
Influence of Kilovoltage

Section VI. Methods of Controlling Fog
Kilovoltage
Effects of Higher Kilovoltages
Effects of Lower Kilovoltages
Grids
Function of Grids
The Stationary Wafer Grid
Necessity For Increasing Exposure
Grid Ratio
Use With Cassettes
The Potter-Bucky Diaphragm
The Focused Bucky
Potter-Bucky Mechanisms
Grid Lines on Film
Modification of the Primary Beam
Cones, Cylinders, Diaphragms, and Collimators
Geometry of Film Coverage
Ratio of Secondary Radiation to Remnant Radiation
Exercises
Solutions


Lesson 2 - Principles of Radiographic Exposure II

Section I. Function of Milliampere-Seconds
Rule-of-Thumb for Density Changes
Reciprocity Law
Tables of Milliamper-Second Values
Milliampere and Time Relation
Time-Density Relation
Experiment: Milliampere-Time Density Relation

Section II. Geometry Of Image Formation
Shadows and X-Ray Images
Shadow Formation By Light
Illustration
Image Characteristics
Reduction of Unsharpness
Types of Definition
Geometrical Unsharpness: Influence of Focal Spot
Geometrical Unsharpness: Influence of Object-Filmdistance
Geometrical Unsharpness: Influence of Source-to-Imagedistance
Motion Unsharpness
Immobilization
Screen Unsharpness
Distortion: Introduction
Magnified Distortion
True Distortion
Illustration of True Distortion

Section III. X-Ray Intensifying Screens
Film Exposure Holders
Intensifying Screens
Speed
Screen Contact
Proper Care Of Screens
Fluoroscopic Screen

Section IV. Standardization Of Exposure
Radiographic Quality
Diagnostic Usefulness
Criteria For Radiographic Qua
Contrast Extremes
Contrast And Sharpness
Value of Total Impression
Standardized Exposure System
Optimum Kilovoltage Technique
Advantages
Rules For Application
Selection of Factors
Thickness Only a Guide
Establishing a Basic mAs
Example
Thickness Greater Than Average
Smaller Thicknesses
Overexposure
Example of Correcting Overexposure
Underexposure
Example of Correcting Underexposure
Phototiming
Summary
Exercises
Solutions


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