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X-Ray Physics

Training Manual - X-Ray Physics (153 Pages)


Lesson 1 - Matter and Energy

Section I. Introduction
Purpose
Scope
History of Radiography
Radiology
The Enlisted X-Ray Specialist

Section II. Basic Concepts of Matter and Energy
Matter
Energy
Mass-Energy Relationships
The Law of Conservation
Atomic Structure
Isotopes
Valence
Formation of Molecules
Radioactivity
X-Radiation
Exercises
Solutions


Lesson 2 - Electricity, Magnets and Circuits

Section I. Introduction
Law of Electrostatics
Electric Current

Section II. Electric Currents
Nature of an Electric Current
Sources of Electric Current
Fundamental Factors Present in Every Electric Circuit

Section III. Elementary Electric Circuits
Ohm's Law
Work and Power in an Electric Circuit

Section IV. Magnetism
Classification of Magnets
Properties of Magnets
Magnetic and Nonmagnetic Substances
Properties of Magnetic Materials
Magnetic Fields
Characteristics of Lines of Force
Electromagnetism
Production and Use of Electromagnetic Force
Electromagnetic Induction
Self-Induction
Mutual Induction

Section V. Electric Generators and Motors
The Simple Alternating Current Generator
Direct Current Generator
Advantages of Alternating Current
The Electric Motor

Section VI. Electrical Devices
Current-Measuring Devices
Transformers
Transformer Core Types
Transformer Losses
Voltage Regulators
Rectification
Valve Tube Rectification
Half-Wave Rectification
Full-Wave Rectification
Method of Testing Rectifiers and Timers
Three-Phase
Exercises
Solutions


Lesson 3 - X-Ray Circuits and Tubes

Section I. Major X-Ray Machine Circuits
Line-to-Autotransformer Circuit
X-Ray Tube Filament Circuit
High-Tension Circuit
The Timer or Control Circuit
Circuitry in a Typical X-Ray Machine

Section II. X-Ray Tubes
Introduction
The Production of X-radiation
Development of X-Ray Tubes
Target Material and Anode Construction
Focal Spot
Anode Heel Effect
Grid-Controlled Tube
Rating Charts
Exercises
Solutions


Lesson 4 - X-Ray Safety

Section I. Avoiding Electrical Hazards
Introduction
Fuses - Machine Protection Only
Severity of Electrical Shock
Grounding
Common Danger Area
Rescue of Electrical Shock Victims

Section II. Radiation - Interaction of Photons with Matter
Ionization
Other Interactions

Section III. Radiation - Detection and Measurement
Total Dose and Dose Rate
Ion Chamber
Film Badge

Section IV. Radiation - Protection
Inverse Square Law
Photon Energy Factor
Absorber Density
Absorber Thickness

Section V. Radiation - Cellular Concepts
Life Cycle of a Cell
Classification of Cells
Deoxyribonucleic Acid and Ribonucleic Acid
How Ionizing Radiation Affects Deoxyribonuciel
Mechanisms of Radiation Injury
Radiosensitivity of Cells
Radiosensitivity of Species

Section VI. Radiation - Residual Dosage
Units of Radiation Dosage
Maximum Permissible Dose

Section VII. Radiation--Biological Effects
Acute Radiation Syndrome
Chronic Effects

Section VIII. Practicing Radiation Protection
Protection for the Specialist
Protection for the Patient
Protection for Others
Exercises
Solutions

Appendix - Radiation Therapy Guidelines
X-Ray Therapy Guidelines
Gamma-Beam Therapy Guidelines
Example of Emergency Procedures for Failure of Gamma- Beam Control Mechanism



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